A reserve deputy with the Orange County Sheriff Department, Dr. Jorge Galindo provides counseling services through his private practice in California alongside his wife, Miriam Galindo, Psy.D. While completing his doctoral internship at the distinguished St. Joseph Hospital, Dr. Jorge Galindo received specialized training in bipolar spectrum disorders.
Bipolar disorder, known for its extreme mood swings with episodes of mania and depression, actually encompasses a spectrum of disorders, including bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia.
Distinguished mainly by its extreme periods of mania, bipolar I disorder usually includes periods of depression as well. Bipolar II, by contrast, has much lower manic periods, referred to as hypomanias, and more extended depressive episodes, often leading to misdiagnosis as major depression. Cyclothymia refers to a less severe form of the disorder, with alternating periods of hypomania and depression.
Another form of bipolar spectrum disorder known as rapid-cycling includes at least four manic and depressive episodes within a year’s time. The validity of its inclusion remains a matter of debate in psychology.